Thursday, December 21, 2017


Episode 19 - Exoplanets has been lost. We continue with our original numbering as we attempt to fix it. Go to Episode 20 - Time Crystals for the next episode.

Time Crystals

Jim talks to Randy about structures that are periodic in time like crystals are periodic in space. This idea came from Frank Wilczek in 2012, and was realized just recently, providing an extraordinary turn-around time from theory to observation.



1. The papers we read for this program:

2. Our subreddit.

Wednesday, December 6, 2017

The 2T Physics of Itzhak Bars

Randy tells Jim about a theory that complements other theories of fundamental physics based upon a phase space symmetry between the 4-position and the 4-momentum of a particle. The upshot of the theory is that there should be a second time dimension and a fourth space dimension, both macroscopic in extent, and the physics we see are 4D projections from the larger 6D space-time.



1. The papers we read for this program:
  • A two Time Universe?, by Tom Siegfried on This is a popular article on the theory.
  • The Standard Model as a 2T Physics Theory, Itzhak Bars. AIP Conference Proceedings 903, 550 (2006) [arXiv]
  • Gravity in 2T Physics, Itzhak Bars, Physical Review D77, 125027 (2008) [arXiv]

2. Itzhak Bars lecture on 2T Physics.

3. Extra Dimensions in Space and Time, a book containing a longer, less technical (almost popular) description of 2T physics by Itzhak Bars. That takes up about half the book, the other half is John Terning discussing more traditional extra dimensions in string theory. My review on PhysicsFM is here.

4. Our subreddit.